servants to retire from the legal profession and civil service. Nazi book burnings took place; nineteen such events were held on the night of Tens of thousands of books from dozens of figures, including Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Helen Keller, Alfred Kerr, Marcel Proust, Erich Maria Remarque, Upton Sinclair, Jakob Wassermann,. Composer Richard Strauss was appointed president of the Reichsmusikkammer (Reich Music Chamber) on its founding in November 1933. The Nazis postulated the existence of a racial conflict between the Aryan master race and inferior races, particularly Jews, who were viewed as a mixed race that had infiltrated society and were responsible for the exploitation and repression of the Aryan race. Propaganda campaigns claimed the church was corrupt, restrictions were placed on public meetings and Catholic publications faced censorship. Initially the victims were shot by the Einsatzgruppen and others; gas chambers and gas vans using carbon monoxide were used by early 1940. The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, passed in April, removed from their jobs all teachers, professors, judges, magistrates, and government officials who were Jewish or whose commitment to the party was suspect. First-year students also had to serve six months in a labour camp for the Reich Labour Service ; an additional ten weeks service were required of second-year students. The party, especially its paramilitary organisation Sturmabteilung (SA; Storm Detachment; Brownshirts used physical violence to advance their political position, disrupting the meetings of rival organisations and attacking their members (as well as Jewish people) on the streets. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state where nearly all aspects of life were controlled by the government. They also took part in street battles against the forces of rival political parties and violent actions against Jews and others. This holding company owned housing corporations, factories, and publishing houses. Holy Roman Empire (8001806) and the, german Empire (18711918).